Expository Text Structure: A Strategic Visual Representation in Enhancing the Reading Comprehension Skills of the Learners

  • Patricia Mae Oteda College of Education, Mindanao State University-General Santos City
  • Argelle Kay Fabellon College of Education, Mindanao State University-General Santos City
  • Cathy Mae Dabi Toquero College of Education, Mindanao State University-General Santos City
Keywords: Expository text structure, reading comprehension, english language, visual representation, learning strategy


Expository Text Structure strategy addresses the informational structure of the text that provides students with a feasible way to analyze through a visual representation of the text which creates an understanding of the basic part of the expository text. This study was carried out through a quasi-experimental design or two group pre-test post-test designs to determine the effectiveness of the Expository Text Structure strategy on the reading comprehension of the students. The researchers developed a reading comprehension test to gather data and were analyzed using percentage rate, frequency count, percentage mean, and t-test for independent samples. Results revealed an increase in the result of the experimental group than the control group after the application of the intervention. Therefore, there was a difference in the reading comprehension level of the pupils in both groups. The change between pre-test and post-test scores of both groups was significantly different. Hence, the study concluded that the Expository Text Structure strategy was significantly effective in enhancing the reading comprehension skills of the students. This offers pedagogical implications such that the Expository Text strategy can be applied to increase the comprehension of the students.


Adams,J., &Snowling,M.(2001).Executivefunctioningandreading impairments in children reported by their teachers as hyperactive. BritishJournal of Developmental Psychology, 19(2), 293-306.Akhondi, M., Malayeri, F. A., & Samad, A. A. (2011). How to teach expository text structure to facilitate reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 64(5), 368-372.https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.64.5.9Alvermann, D.E., & Phelps, S.F. (1998). Content reading and literacy: Succeeding in today’s diverse classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Bradley, M., (2010). The Impact of Intermediate Students’ Awareness and Use of Text Structure in Comprehending Expository Text and Its Implications for Classroom Instruction. Northern Michigan University, USA.Bohaty, Janet J., (2015). The Effects of Expository Text Structure Instruction onthe Reading Outcomes of 4th and 5th Graders Experiencing Reading Difficulties. Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences. 228.Cayubit, R. F., (2015). Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension as a measure of Reading Skills of Filipino Children. University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines.Chall, J. S., Jacobs, V. A., & Baldwin, L. E. (1990). The reading crisis: Why poor children fall behind. Harvard University Press.Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2007). Testing and refining the direct and inferential mediation model of reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.99.2.311De Jonge, S., &Kemp, N. (2012). Text-message abbreviations and language skills in high school and university students. Journal of Research in Reading. University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaDickson, S.V., Simmons, D., & Kameenui, E.J. (1995a). Text organization andits relation to reading comprehension: A synthesis of the research. (Report No. 17).Portland, OR: National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators. Dickson, S.V., Simmons, D., & Kameenui, E.J. (1995b). Instruction in expository text: A focus on compare/contrast structure. LD Forum, 20(2), 8-15.Duke, Nell & Pearson, P.. (2002). Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension. What research has to say about reading instruction. 3. 10.1598/0872071774.10.
Dymock, S.J. (1998). The effects of text structure training, reading practice and guided silent reading on reading comprehension. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Expository text comprehension in the primary grade classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 538-550.
Fletcher, J.M. (2006). Measuring reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading.
Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M. M., & Cai, Z. (2004). Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language. Behavior research methods, instruments, & computers, 36(2), 193-202. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195564
Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J. A., Jr. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 545–561). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hebert, M., Bohaty, J. J., Nelson, J. R., & Brown, J. (2016). The effects of text structure instruction on expository reading comprehension: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(5), 609.
National Center for Education Statistics (2009).The nation’s report card. Reading 2009: National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8 (NCES 2010–458). Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
MacMillan, J.H., & Schumacher, S. (2001) Research in Education. A Conceptual Introduction. 5th Edition, Longman, Boston.
Maughan, B., & Carroll, J. (2006). Literacy and mental disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, (19), 350-354.
McGee, L.M. (1982). Awareness of text structure: Effects on children's recall of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 17(4), 581-590.
Meyer, J.B.F., Brandt, D.M., & Bluth, G.J. (1980). Use of top-level structure in text: Key for reading comprehension of ninth-grade students. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(1), 72-103.doi: 10 .2307/747349.
Moss, B., (2004). Teaching expository text structures through information trade book retellings. Reading Teacher. 57. 710-718.
Nealy, A. (2003). The effects of instruction on expository text structure and use of graphic organizers on comprehension for young adolescents with learning disabilities.
Newman, L., (2007). The Effects of Explicit Instruction of Expository Text Structure Incorporating.
Pyle, N., Vasquez, A. C., Lignugaris-Kraft, B., Gillam, S. L., Reutzel, D. R., Olszewski, A., ... & Pyle, D. (2017). Effects of expository text structure interventions on comprehension: A meta‐analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 52(4), 469-501. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.179
Rahman, H., (2004). An Evaluation of the Teaching of Reading Skills of English In Bangladesh. University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Rere, T., (2012). http://nclana-archive.ako.ac.nz/resources/355022.html.
Singer, H., & Donlan, D. (1982). Active comprehension: Problem-solving schema with question generation for comprehension of complex short stories. Reading Research Quarterly, 17(2), 166–186. https://doi.org/10.2307/747482.
Slater, W.H., & Graves, M.F. (1989). Research on expository text: Implications for teachers. In K.D. Muth (Ed.), Children’s comprehension of text, (pp.140-166). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Taylor, B.M., & Beach, R.W. (1984). The effects of text structure instruction on middle-grade students’ comprehension and production of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 19 (2), 134-146.
Utecht, J. (2015). How expository text structure instruction effects reading comprehension". Master's Theses, Capstones, and Projects. 339.
Van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of Discourse Comprehension. New York: Academic Press. Williams, J. P., Hall, K. M., Lauer, K. D., Stafford, K. B., DeSisto, L. A., & deCani, J. S. (2005). Expository Text Comprehension in the Primary Grade Classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 538-550. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.97.4.538.
Williams, J.P., (2018). Text structure instruction: the research is moving forward. Read Writ 31, 1923–1935. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9909-7.
How to Cite
Oteda, P. M., Fabellon, A. K., & Toquero, C. M. (2021). Expository Text Structure: A Strategic Visual Representation in Enhancing the Reading Comprehension Skills of the Learners. Musamus Journal of Primary Education, 3(2), 104-114. https://doi.org/10.35724/musjpe.v3i2.3339